Updated: April 11, 2023

A study by Standard & Poor (S&P) in 2014 showed that only 25% of Filipino adults are financially literate. The global score is 31%, which means our country is below average and needs to improve.

Fortunately, the Philippine government is already working on several financial literacy programs to help address this. This news was announced last April 2016 by Undersecretary Gil Beltran during the 10th Financial Literacy Summit.

But what does it mean to be financially literate?

The US National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) defines it as having an understanding of basic financial concepts such as interest, inflation, risk, and investments.

It also includes numeracy skills, or the ability to work with numbers. Particularly, having the ability to solve mathematical problems that involve the financial concepts mentioned above.

And that’s what we’ll try to do today.

Contents

### Financial Literacy Test

Below are six multiple-choice questions. They’re from the US National Financial Capability Study, and among the many problems they use to measure financial literacy.

QUESTION 1
Suppose you have \$100 in a savings account earning 2 percent interest a year. After five years, how much would you have?
a. More than \$102
b. Exactly \$102
c. Less than \$102
d. I don’t know

QUESTION 2
Imagine that the interest rate on your savings account is 1 percent a year and inflation is 2 percent a year. After one year, would the money in the account buy more than it does today, exactly the same or less than today?
a. More
b. Same
c. Less
d. I don’t know

QUESTION 3
If interest rates rise, what will typically happen to bond prices? Rise, fall, stay the same, or is there no relationship?
a. Rise
b. Fall
c. Stay the same
d. No relationship
e. I don’t know

QUESTION 4
True or false: A 15-year mortgage typically requires higher monthly payments than a 30-year mortgage but the total interest over the life of the loan will be less.
a. True
b. False
c. I don’t know

QUESTION 5
True or false: Buying a single company’s stock usually provides a safer return than a stock mutual fund.
a. True
b. False
c. I don’t know

QUESTION 6
Suppose you owe \$1,000 on a loan and the interest rate you are charged is 20% per year compounded annually. If you didn’t pay anything off, at this interest rate, how many years would it take for the amount you owe to double?
a. Less than 2 years
b. 2 to 4 years
c. 5 to 9 years
d. 10 or more years
e. I don’t know

### Financial Literacy Test Answer Key

QUESTION 1 ANSWER: a. More than \$102
You’ll have more than \$102 at the end of five years because your interest will compound over time. In other words, you earn interest on the money you save and on the interest your savings earned in prior years.

Here’s how the math works. A savings account with \$100 and a 2 percent annual interest rate would earn \$2 in interest for an ending balance of \$102 by the end of the first year.

Applying the same 2 percent interest rate, the \$102 would earn \$2.04 in the second year for an ending balance of \$104.04 at the end of that year. Continuing in this same pattern, the savings account would grow to \$110.41 by the end of the fifth year.

The reason you have less is inflation. Inflation is the rate at which the price of goods and services rises.

If the annual inflation rate is 2 percent but the savings account only earns 1 percent, the cost of goods and services has outpaced the buying power of the money in the savings account that year.

Put another way, your buying power has not kept up with inflation.

When interest rates rise, bond prices fall. And when interest rates fall, bond prices rise.

This is because as interest rates go up, newer bonds come to market paying higher interest yields than older bonds already in the hands of investors, making the older bonds worth less.

Assuming the same interest rate for both loans, you will pay less in interest over the life of a 15-year loan than you would with a 30-year loan because you repay the principal at a faster rate.

This also explains why the monthly payment for a 15-year loan is higher. Let’s say you get a 30-year mortgage at 6 percent on a \$150,000 home. You will pay \$899 a month in principal and interest charges. Over 30 years, you will pay \$173,757 in interest alone.

But a 15-year mortgage at the same rate will cost you less. You will pay \$1,266 each month but only \$77,841 in total interest–nearly \$100,000 less.

In general, investing in a stock mutual fund is less risky than investing in a single stock because mutual funds offer a way to diversify.

If the price falls when you sell, you lose money. With a mutual fund that invests in the stocks of dozens (or even hundreds) of companies, you lower the chances that a price decline for any single stock will impact your return.

Diversification generally may result in a more consistent performance in different market conditions.

QUESTION 6 ANSWER: b. 2 to 4 years
Ignoring interest compounding, borrowing at 20 percent per year would lead to doubling in five years; someone who knew about interest on interest might have selected a number less than five.

Someone who knows the “Rule of 72” heuristic would know that it would be about 3.6 years, which makes the correct answer “2 to 4 years.”

In finance, the Rule of 72 is a method for estimating an investment’s doubling time. The rule number (i.e., 72) is divided by the interest percentage per period to obtain the approximate number of periods (usually years) required for doubling.

You’re above average. Congratulations and keep up the good work. I’m proud of you.

Your financial literacy is on the average level. Stay on track and continue learning.

You need to give more effort in learning, so you can eventually increase your financial literacy. It’s never too late to start learning!

1. Ally says:

I got 5 😀

2. Strawberri says:

5 of 6. It would be embarrassing to get a score lower than this since I’m a finance person… 🙂

3. Carlo says:

4. Kai says:

Maybe I should read more about bonds. Out of the 6 questions, I only made a mistake on question #3. Thanks for this! 🙂

perfect score 6…ang galing ko naman…

6. Ching says:

I got 4 i would love to continue learning

7. Anie says:

It’s because we are reading your blog that we are financially literate aside of course from the knowledge i got from my accounting course but practically learned more from you fritz than from the classroom setting maybe beacause m more interested to get rich now than 3 decades back. Thank you.

8. Hardee says:

5

9. CHARLES SALVACION says:

4. not bad but I’ll continue learning

10. Mayette says:

I got 5 out of 6. My wrong answer is #3 🙁

11. Ali says:

5..I’m expecting to have perfect score..#CPA

12. Jack says:

THANX Fitz for re-posting this quiz. It was a fun thing to do at a time of crisis (COVID-19//April 2020) Our eldest two troops have made me proud. The 14 year old (today was his birthday), 5/6. Good job man. My little princess who turned 12 a few weeks ago, 3/5. Yes, we still have some work to do. My thinking: in a day and age where so many adults would be hard pressed to get one or two correct answers, we must be doing something correctly with our brood. We will assess the weak areas and move ever forward on family financial literacy.

13. Margarita J. Mangalile says:

I got 6 out 6. It’s embarrassing if i got lower because im teaching finance.